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Raw Water Analysis report

No water available from bore well , open well , spring have same physical & chemical characteristics, hence treatment employed / design of the plant should be different , primarily depending upon the result of raw water analysis report.

There are generally 3 types of impurities in raw water which needs treatment :

  • Un dissolved impurities. [ Turbidity , Odour, Colour etc.]
  • Dissolved impurities. [ Mg, Ca, Na, Hco3, iron etc.]
  • Microbiological impurities [ Bacteria, Virus, Pathogens etc.]

The Capillary column method should be employed to ascertain the level of pesticides too, in raw water as it takes special carbon to treat excess level of pesticides.

PLANT & MACHINERY

FILTRATION

Processes, technology and equipment employed to purify the water

There are various processes employed to purify the water and various combinations are incorporated so that the final composition of the product confirms to latest BIS norms.  

Reverse Osmosis 


Desalination is defined as the removal of dissolved salts from various waters – brackish, sea, etc.  Desalination can be performed by several processes including two-membrane process, namely reverse osmosis and electrodialysis.  The other membrane process, which can be employed for partial desalination, include microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration.

Global scenario

Desalination Membrane Technology is globally accepted, not only in desert lands of Middle East but also in water rich countries of America, Europe and Japan as well.

Reverse osmosis

RO membrane are effective in removing constituents removed by the other membrane processes – including monovalent ions, such as sodium and chloride.  RO membranes are efficient in removing TDS in any feedwater up to 40,000 ppm (i.e. sea water.)

Osmosis is natural bio-chemical process that affects the movement or diffusion of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane towards a solution that has high TDS, and it is induced by osmotic pressure.  RO is accomplished by forcing water molecules under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane out of solution that has high TDS.  The feedwater on the inlet side becomes brine and water that passes through – permeates, becomes the product water.

RO membrane can be distinguished from other membranes based on pore size, which is around 0.0005 microns.  The pore size of RO membrane is small, that it functions primarily by diffusion instead of filtration or adsorption.

Nanofiltration (NF)

NF is effective in removing divalent ions (i.e. calcium and magnesium),         larger monovalent ions (i.e. sulphate), high molecular weight organic molecules, and colour. NF membranes are ef icient in softening feedwater below 1,000 mg/l TDS.  These membranes provide significant rejection of hardness caused by dissolved calcium and magnesium.  The pore size of NF membranes range between 0.0007 to 0.01 microns. (Taylor, 1989, 18)

Ultrafiltlration (UF)


UF is effective in removing high molecular weight proteins and organic, bacteria and viruses.  Rejection of monovalent and divalent ions are considerably less than RO and NF.  UF membrane pores are smaller than MF but greater than NF, and range between 0.001 to 0.1 microns.  The primary mechanism of constituent removal is filtration, however, some salts are transported across the semi-permeable membranes by diffusion.

Microfiltration (MF)

MF is effective in removing suspended solids of all types, bacteria and larger colloids.  These membranes generally filter out suspended constituents in feedwater.  Adsorption and diffusion can account for some removal, but are not as effective as UF.

Osmosis

When a dilute solution and a concentrated solution are partitioned by a semi-permeable membrane, the solvent (water in this case) in the dilute solution will diffuse through the membrane into the concentrated solution side.  This phenomenon is called “Osmosis”.

Reverse osmosis


When a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the concentrated solution side, the solvent will flow from the more concentrated solution into the dilute concentrated solution, that is, in the direction opposite to osmosis.

Ultra Violet Unit [ U V ]

  • UV is a band of invisible light in the electromagnetic spectrum, in the range of 200-400 nm wavelengths, having germicidal effectiveness, which penetrates the microbial cell membrane to destroy the DNA molecule thus preventing cell replication.
  • UV is used to provide Bacterial Disinfection in water.  As UV does not change the Physical or Chemical characteristics in water & does not have any residual properties left in treated water, it is widely used to disinfect the water for micro biological contamination.

The U.S. Public Health Service requires that UV disinfection equipment have a minimum UV dosage of 16000  uW sec/cm2 (microwatt seconds per square centimeter).

Ozonation

Ozone generation involves splitting of an Oxygen molecule into two highly unstable Oxygen atoms.  These unstable Oxygen atoms combine with other Oxygen molecule to ultimately produce Ozone.

Dry air or Oxygen is passed through the Ozone cell consisting of two electrodes kept at a high potential with a dielectrics in between them.  The Corona discharge formed in the gap energizes the Oxygen molecules, thereby converting a portion of Oxygen into Ozone.  As Ozone is highly unstable & cannot be stored is produced at site where it is required. Its intensive  oxidation property disinfects and residual ozone ensures the long shelf life of water.

MANUFACTURING OF BOTTLES – INHOUSE

PRIMARILY, either performs are made in-house or bottles are blown from bought out performs.

Injection blow molding and Stretch blow molding process

The process is divided into two steps: injection of performs and blowing of preforms.

IN-HOUSE BLOWING OF PREFORMS

In the stretch blow molding process, the plastic is first molded into a “preform” using the injection molding process. These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles, including threads (the “finish”) on one end. These preforms are into  stretch blow molding machine. In this process, the preforms are heated using infrared heaters above their transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into bottles using blow molds.

RINSING, FILLING AND CAPPING MACHINERY


Bottle blown are transferred to fully automatic rinsing filling and capping line. This is generally done on single block machine performing all three functions.

CODING MACHINE AND POST PACKING MACHINE


Bottles are coded while on out feed conveyors and transferred to post packing section. The collation system sets the bottles in required matrix and transfers to either shrink sealing or cartons .